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Standard

Capacitive Fuel Gauging System Accuracies

2016-08-12
CURRENT
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
Standard

Performance of Low Pressure Ratio Ejectors for Engine Nacelle Cooling

1971-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1191
Method: A general method for the preliminary design of a siingle, straight-sided, low subsonic ejector is presented. The method is based on the information presented in References 1, 2, 3, and 4, and utilizes analytical and empirical data for the sizing of the ejector mixing duct diameter and flow length. The low subsonic restriction applies because compressibility effects were not included in the development of the basic design equations. The equations are restricted to applications where Mach numbers within the ejector primary or secondary flow paths are equal to or less than 0.3. Procedure: A recommended step-by-step procedure is shown. Equations: The equations used in the procedure, as well as their derivations, are given. Sample Calculation: A sample calculation is presented to isllustrate the use of the basic method.
Standard

FUEL GAGING SYSTEM ACCURACIES

1973-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1184
It is intended to provide capacitance gaging system "specifiers" with the necessary tools to make value judgements concerning the various errors typically encountered in systems of this type. Thus, in addition to merely identifying the error-causes, descriptions are given concerning the basic factors from which these error-causes derive. This knowledge, when complemented with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the error-causes, will furnish the system specifier with a powerful tool with which to optimize gaging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the "best possible" overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of capacitance gaging accuracy is quite extensive, and in some instances very complex, no attempt is made herein to present an all-inclusive and fully comprehensive evaluation of the subject. Rather, the major contributors to gaging system inaccuracy are discussed.
Standard

CAPACITIVE FUEL GAUGING SYSTEM ACCURACIES

1989-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1184A
This report is intended to identify the necessary analytical tools to enable making value judgments for minimizing the various errors typically encountered in capacitance systems. Thus, in addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of capacitance accuracy is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of Capacitive Fuel Gauging operation is provided in the Appendix.
Standard

OXYGEN SYSTEM AND COMPONENT CLEANING AND PACKAGING

1991-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1176A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) specifies work area details, cleaning methods, test methods, and specifications for oxygen clean parts and packaging materials.
Standard

Index of Starting System Specifications and Standards

2001-12-07
CURRENT
AIR1174B
This report lists military and industry specifications and standards which are used in aerospace engine starting and auxiliary power systems. Listings are provided as follows: Section 2. Topic Listing Section 3. Numerical Listing Section 4. Alphabetical Listing Only those hardware standards which have been specifically designed for engine starting systems are listed. Revisions and amendments which are current for these specifications and standards are not listed.
Standard

Standard Impulse Machine Equipment and Operation

1972-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1228
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) establishes the part numbers and/or description of the critical components and operational guidelines for the standard hydraulic impulse machine for testing hydraulic hose assemblies, tubing, coils, and fittings and may be used for similar fluid system components, if desired. The standard impulse machine is established for the following purposes: 1 As referee in the event of conflicting data from two or more nonstandard impulse machines. Such a referee machine might be built by an impartial testing activity. 2 A design guide for future machines being built by manufacturers and users, or the upgrading of present machines. 3 A design guide for higher pressure machines or special purpose machines being designed. It is not the intention of this document to obsolete present machines.
Standard

Standard Impulse Machine Equipment and Operation

2009-01-07
CURRENT
AIR1228A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) establishes the specifications and descriptions of the critical components and operational guidelines for the standard hydraulic impulse machine for testing hydraulic hose assemblies, tubing, coils, fittings and similar fluid system components. This revision to the AIR1228 provides a description of a system that meets the requirements for specifications including: AS603, AS4265, and ARP1383. This impulse system utilizes closed loop servo control with specifically generated command signal waveforms. Data accuracy and integrity are emphasized in this revision. Knowing the uncertainty of the pressure measurement is important whether using a resonator tube system, as described in the original release of this document, or a closed-loop systems as described in this release. The accuracy of the data measurement system and consistency of the pressure waveform are fundamental to test validity, regardless of the system type.
Standard

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) System Design Checklist

1971-10-01
CURRENT
AIR1221
This checklist is to be used by project personnel to assure that factors required for adequate system electromagnetic compatibility are considered and incorporated into a program. It provides a ready reference of EMC management and documentation requirements for a particular program from preproposal thru acquisition. When considered with individual equipments comprising the system and the electromagnetic operational environment in which the system will operate, the checklist will aid in the preparation of an EMC analysis. The analysis will facilitate the development of system-dependent EMC criteria and detailed system, subsystem, and equipment design requirements ensuring electromagnetic compatibility.
Standard

Anti Blow-By Design Practice for Cap Strip Seals

1978-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1243
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on anti blow-by design practice for cap-strip seals. Suggestions for piston cap strip seal sidewall notch design and other anti blow-by design details are also described. It also includes information on two key investigations based on the XC-142 as part of the text and as Appendix A. The purpose of this document is to provide adequate information to the designer so that the problem will not reoccur.
Standard

COMPARISON OF GROUND-RUNUP AND FLYOVER NOISE LEVELS

2002-12-16
CURRENT
AIR1216
Because of the special circumstances under which these tests were conducted, it is necessary to carefully define the limitations on the validity of the results. The measurements and the comparisons reported here apply only to the specific locations of the noise sources and microphones and only for the specific weather and ground-surface conditions existing at the time of the tests. It cannot be assumed that these conditions are representative of most field measurements of aircraft exterior noise.
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