This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents a glossary of terms commonly utilized in the ground delivery of fuel to an aircraft and some terms relating to the aircraft being refueled. The purpose of this document is to provide background material for educational purposes to persons designing, building, and using aircraft ground refueling delivery systems.
This report lists documents that aid and govern the design, development, and utilization of aerospace electronic engine control systems. The report lists the military and industry specifications and standards that are commonly used in electronic engine control system design. However, this list is not necessarily complete. The specifications and standards section has been divided into two parts; a master list arranged numerically and a categorized list that provides a functional breakdown and cross reference of these documents. For specifications and standards, the issue available during the latest revision to this document is listed. Details of current revisions for many documents are available in the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS).
This guide is intended to promote safe designs, operations and maintenance on aircraft and ground support oxygen systems. This is also a summary of some work by the ASTM G 4 Committee related to oxygen fire investigations and design concerns to reduce the risk of an oxygen fire. There have been many recent technological advances and additional test data is available for evaluating and controlling combustion hazards in oxygen equipment. Standards that use this new information are rapidly evolving. A guide is needed to assist organizations and persons not completely familiar with this process to provide oxygen systems with minimum risks of combustion. This guide does not necessarily address all the detailed issues and provide all data that will be needed. For a complete analysis, supplemental publications need to be consulted. This guide does discuss the basics of oxygen systems fire hazards. The hazard analysis process is discussed and a simple example to explain this process.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents metrics for assessing the performance of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms applied to Engine Health Management (EHM) functions. This document consolidates and expands upon the metric information previously contained in AIR4985 and AIR5909. The emphasis is entirely on metrics and as such is intended to provide an extension and complement to such documents as ARP4176, which provides insight into how to create a cost benefit analysis to determine the justification for implementing an EHM system.
This document considers the cooling of equipment installed in equipment centers, which usually consist of rack-mounted equipment and panel mounted equipment in the flight deck. In instances where these two locations result in different requirements, these are identified. For purposes of this document, the cooled equipment is referred to generally as E/E equipment, deonting that both electrical and electronic equipment is considered, or as an E/E equipment line-replaceable-unit (LRU). The majority of cooled equipment takes the form of LRUs. This document primarily relates to E/E equipment which is designed to use forced air cooling in order to maintain the equipment operating performance (within acceptable tolerances), and to maintain reliability. Cooling may be applied internally or externally to the case of the item of E/E equipment. There are also E/E equipment items which are cooled by natural convection, conduction, and radiation to the surrounding environment.
To provide a method that accounts for the attenuation due to line-of-sight blockage of aircraft noise by terrain features.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a performance station designation system for unconventional propulsion cycles and their derivatives. The station numbering conventions presented herein are for use in all communications concerning propulsion system performance such as computer programs, data reduction, design activities, and published documents. They are intended to facilitate calculations by the program user without unduly restricting the method of calculation used by the program supplier. The contents of this document will follow AS755 where applicable.
This document establishes methods to obtain, store, and access data about the health of a fiber optic network using commercially available inline optical power monitoring sensors. This document is intended for: Managers Engineers Technicians Contracting officers Third party maintenance agencies Quality assurance
This document establishes methods to obtain, store, and access data about the health of a fiber optic network using commercially available sensors. This document is intended for: Managers Engineers Contracting Officers Third Party Maintenance Agencies Quality Assurance
The scope of this report is to capture the fundamental principles of selecting a wire size for an aerospace application using the method prescribed in SAE AS50881 standard. Also, provided in this report are additional calculations to ensure the wire selection will adequately perform in a particular design function including meeting environment constraints. Some of the calculations in this report have been simplified to demonstrate the process for validating the wire size selections for a particular design application. More precise calculations should be investigated and evaluated to ensure proper assessment of each individual calculation in this report.
The scope of this document is to provide a definition of the minimum set of flight information and symbology required for safe operation of aircraft when displayed on an electronic flight information system (EFIS), including but not limited to Primary Flight Display (PFD) as a Minimum Information Display List (MIDL).
This document establishes methods to obtain, store, and access data about the health of a fiber optic network using commercially available a high-resolution reflectometer. This document is intended for: Managers Engineers Contracting Officers Third Party Maintenance Agencies Quality Assurance
The pupose of this SAE AIR is to provide guidelines for sizing stored energy systems in use in emergency braking systems, in light of their intended purpose and applicable certification regulations.
This document shall provide the fundamental safety considerations in pursuing the design of a 48/60 VDC aircraft electrical system. This departure from the current standard of 28 VDC will provide the benefits of reducing the operational weight and fuel consumption of the aircraft by increasing the DC system voltage level.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) comprises the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations that are used in Aircraft Fuel Systems.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information and methods for using aircraft position data to estimate aircraft thrust. The thrust estimated using this AIR is intended to be used to estimate aircraft noise level and aircraft air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The method of estimating aircraft noise level using aircraft thrust is provided in AIR 1845. Aircraft noise and emissions are generally estimated using models that are based on standard sets of aircraft profiles that include aircraft thrust, speed, and altitude along the flight path. Potential uses of this AIR are to provide an experimental method of determining the adequacy of a standard profile or to develop a flight specific profile. Flight specific profiles may be used to develop or revise standard profiles or to model noise or emissions on a flight-by-flight basis.
Procedures for Measurement of Gaseous Emissions from Gas Turbine Engines Using Fourier transform infrared Analysis
This AIR5933 gives an overview of contemporary technologies to determine the oxygen concentration respectively partial pressure in air. The aerospace application and its special constraints have been emphasized regarding weight, power supply, overall size, reliability and safety, cost and useful life.
The scope of the project is to develop a comprehensive description document that displays various examples of High Lift Systems of commercial and military aircraft. The main focus is on mechanical systems which may be actuated hydraulically or electrically. The document is intended as an overview for those specifying or designing High Lift Systems in order to compare existing solutions as reference for implementation in new aircraft programs.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will define the materials, strength, and finishes utilized in current linear electro-mechanical flight control actuators.
Informational discussion on Jet Fuels being introduced that are produced from feed stocks other than the traditional petroleum crude oils.
The scope of this document is to discuss the differences between electromechanical and proximity position sensing devices when used on landing gears. It also contains information, which may be helpful, when applying either type of technology after the selection has been made. The purpose is to help the designer make better choices when selecting a position-sensing device. Once that choice has been made, this document includes information to improve the reliability of new or current designs. It is not intended to replace recommendations from sensor manufacturers or actual experience, but to provide a set of general guidelines.
This AIR provides descriptions of aircraft actuation system failure-detection methods. The methods are those used for ground and in-flight detection of failures in electrohydraulic actuation systems for primary flight control. The AIR concentrates on full Fly-By-Wire (FBW) flight control actuation though it includes one augmented-control system. The background to the subject is discussed in terms of the impact that factors such as the system architecture have on the detection methods chosen for the flight control system. The types of failure covered by each monitoring technique are listed and discussed in general. The way in which these techniques have evolved is illustrated with a historical review of the methods adopted for a series of aircraft, arranged approximately in design chronological order.
The SAE Guide to APU health management establishes the foundation for developing a successful APU health management program at any aircraft or APU operator, such as an airline, an OEM, an equipment supplier, or a military transport unit. This guide identifies the best practices for using an APU health management program to improve dispatch reliability and to satisfy Extended Operations (ETOPS) availability requirements.
This document defines the process steps involved in collecting and processing engine test data for use in understanding engine behavior. It describes the use of an aero-thermal cycle model for reduction and analysis of those data. The analysis process may include the calculation of modifiers to match the model to measured data, and prediction of engine performance based on that analysis
Over the past decade several metal clad fibers and fabrics have been developed to provide aerospace vehicle designers with a conductive, lighter weight alternative to coated copper or steel for shielding and harness overbraids of electrical cables. Several of these candidates have been unable to provide the strength or thermal stability necessary for the aerospace environment. However, the aramid-based products have shown remarkable resistance to the rigorous environment of aerospace vehicles. Concurrent with these fiber developments, there have been changes in the structures of aerospace vehicles involving greater use of nonmetallic outer surfaces. This has resulted in a need for increased shielding of electrical cables which adds substantial weight to the vehicle. Thus, a lighter weight shielding material has become more critical to meet the performance requirements of the vehicle.
The emerging ultra high bypass ratio ADP engines, with nozzle pressure ratios significantly lower, and bypass ratios significantly higher, than those of the current turbofan engines, may present new in-flight thrust determination challenges that are not specifically covered in AIR1703. This document addresses candidate methods and the additional challenges to the thrust determination for these ADP engines. These novel challenges result in part from the fact that some large ADP engines exceed present altitude test facility capabilities. The traditional methods of nozzle coefficient extrapolation may not be most satisfactory because of the increased error due to the ADP higher ratio of gross to net thrust, and because of the increased sensitivity of in-flight thrust uncertainty at the lower fan nozzle pressure ratio.
This handbook is intended to accompany or incorporate AS5643 IEEE-1394b Interface Requirements for Military and Aerospace Vehicle Applications, AS5643/1 S400 Copper Media Interface Characteristics over Extended Distances, AS5657 Test Plan/Procedure for AS5643 IEEE-1394b Interface Requirements for Military and Aerospace Vehicle Applications, AS5706 Test Plan/procedure for AS5643/1 S400 Copper Media Interface Characteristics Over Extended Distances, and ARD5708 Frequently Asked Questions about IEEE-1394b and SAE AS5643. In addition, full understanding of this handbook also requires knowledge of IEEE-1394-1995, IEEE-1394a and IEEE-1394b standards. This handbook contains detailed explanations and architecture analysis on AS5643, bus timing and scheduling considerations, system redundancy design considerations, suggestions on AS5643-based system configurations, cable selection guidance, and lessons learned on failure modes.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a tabular listing of materials, procurement specifications, and mechanical properties for bolts and screws developed for use on aerospace propulsion systems designed using the U.S. customary system or the SI system.
The list is intended to give a brief overview of the various kinds of SAE aerospace procurement specifications available when developing bolt and screw part standards.