This specification supplies engineers and designers with: Poppet valve nomenclature Poppet valve alloy designations Chemical compositions of poppet valve alloys A guide to valve alloy metallurgy and heat treatments General information on properties of valve alloys A guide to the application of valve alloys A description of valve design and construction, and their relation to valve alloy selection Valve gear design considerations that affect valves
Hardness testing with files consists essentially of cutting or abrading the surface of metal parts, and approximating the hardness by the feel, or extent to which, the file bites into the surface. The term "file hard" means that the surface hardness of the parts tested is such that a new file of proven hardness will not cut the surface of the material being tested.
This report lists approximate hardness conversion values; test methods for Vickers Hardness, Brinell Hardness, Rockwell Hardness Rockwell Superficial Hardness, Shore Hardness; and information regarding surface preparation, specimen thickness, effect of curved surfaces, and recommendations for Rockwell surface hardness testing for case hardened parts. The tables in this report give the approximate relationship of Vickers Brinell, Rockwell, and Scleroscope hardness values and corresponding approximate tensile strengths of steels. It is impossible to give exact relationships because of the inevitable influence of size, mass, composition, and method of heat treatment. Where more precise conversions are required, they should be developed specially for each steel composition, heat treatment, and part.
This report covers the recommended practice for the evaluation and measurement of decarburization in ferrous material. Included are definitions of types with charts and micrographs and methods most commonly used for the measurement of decarburization.
This recommended microscopic practice for evaluating the inclusion content in steel has been developed as a practical method of quantitatively determining the degree of cleanliness of steel. This method has been established as a reasonable control for steel mill operations and acceptance for production manufacturing. It has been widely accepted for carbon and alloy steel bars, billets, and slabs. Exceptions are resulfurized grades which are outside the limits of these photomicrographs and the high carbon bearing quality steels which are generally classified using ASTM E 45-60T, Method A, Jernkontoret Charts.
The SAE Standards for aluminum casting alloys cover a wide range of castings for general and special use, but do not include all the alloys in commercial use. Over the years, aluminum alloys have been identified by many numbering systems as shown in Table 1. Presently, SAE is recommending the use of the UNS Numbering System to identify these materials. The castings are made principally by sand cast, permanent mold, or die cast methods; however, shell molding, investment casting, plaster cast, and other less common foundry methods may also be used. If the alloys listed do not have the desired characteristics, it is recommended that the manufacturers of aluminum castings be consulted.
This specification covers sub-critically annealed or normalized electric resistance welded and cold-drawn single-wall high strength steel tubing intended for use in hydraulic pressure lines and in other applications requiring tubing of a quality suitable for bending, flaring, cold forming, welding and brazing. Nominal reference working pressures for this tubing are listed in ISO 10763 for metric tubing and SAE J1065 for inch tubing. This specification also covers SAE J2614 Type-A tubing. The mechanical properties and performance requirements of standard SAE J2614 and SAE J2614 Type-A are the same. The designated differences of Type-A tubing do not imply that Type-A tubing is in anyway inferior to standard SAE J2614. The Type-A designation is meant to address unique manufacturing differences between sub-critically annealed and normalized tubing.
This report is an abbreviated summary of metallurgical joining by welding, brazing, and soldering. It is generally intended to reflect current usage in the automotive industry; however, it does include some of the more recently developed processes. More comprehensive coverage of materials, processing details, and equipment required may be found in the Welding Handbook, Soldering Manual, and other publications of the American Welding Society for Testing and Materials. AWS Automotive Welding Committee publications on Recommended Practices are particularly recommended for the design or product engineer. This report is not intended to cover mechanical joining such as rivets or screw fasteners, or chemical joining processes such as adhesive joining.
This SAE Standard covers the mechanical and physical property requirements for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) castings used in automotive and allied industries. Specifically covered are: Hardness Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elongation Modulus of Elasticity Impact Energy Microstructure In this document SI units are primary and in-lb units are derived. Appendix A provides general information and related resources on the microstructural, chemical and heat treatment requirements to meet the mechanical properties needed for ADI in particular service conditions and applications.
This document has not changed other than to put it into the new SAE Technical Standards Board Format This SAE Standard covers the most commonly used magnesium alloys suitable for casting by the various commercial processes. The chemical composition limits and minimum mechanical properties are shown. Over the years, magnesium alloys have been identified by many numbering systems, as shown in Table 1. Presently, SAE is recommending the use of the use of the UNS numbering system to identify those materials. Other equally important characteristics such as surface finish and dimensional tolerances are not covered in this standard.
This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in wrought forms, and lists chemical composition and minimum mechanical properties for the various forms. A general indication of the usage of the various materials is also provided.
SIMILAR SPECIFICATIONS—UNS Z33521, former SAE 903, ingot is similar to ASTM B 240-79, Alloy AG40A; and UNS Z33520, former SAE 903, die casting is similar to ASTM B 86-76, Alloy AG40A. UNS Z35530, former SAE 925, ingot is similar to ASTM B 240-79, Alloy AC41A; and UNS Z35531, former SAE 925, die casting is similar to ASTM B 86-82a, Alloy AC41A.
The Joint AWS/SAE Committee on Automotive Welding was organized on January 16, 1974, for the primary purpose of facilitating the development and publication of various documents related to the selection, specification, testing, and use of welding materials and practices, particularly for the automotive and related industries. A secondary purpose is the dissemination of technical information.
An enormous economic loss, as well as a waste of natural resources, is incurred world-wide as a result of wear of components and tools. Any effort expended in an attempt to reduce this loss is indeed worthwhile. The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to present the current state of knowledge of abrasive wear. This report, therefore, covers wear, or the undesired removal of metal by mechanical action, caused by abrasive particles in contact with the surface. It does not concern metal-to-metal wear or wear in the presence of an abrasive free lubricant. Abrasive wear occurs when hard particles, such as rocks, sand, or fragments of certain hard metals, slide or roll under pressure across a surface. This action tends to cut grooves across the metal surface, much like a cutting tool. Abrasive wear is of considerable importance in any part moving in relation to an abrasive.
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to provide automotive engineers and designers with a concise statement of the basic characteristics of cast iron under elevated temperature conditions. As such, the report concentrates on general statements regarding these properties with limited illustrative data, anticipating that those who may be interested in more detail will want to use the bibliography provided at the conclusion of the report.
The scope of this SAE Information Report is to supply the user with sufficient information so that he may decide whether acoustic emission test methods apply to his particular inspection problem. Detailed technical information can be obtained by referring to Section 2.